Publications

2014
Monzer Fanun, Ahmad Shakarnah, Michael Schwarze, Reinhard Schomäcker, Zackaria Nairoukh, and Jochanan Blum. 2014. “Characterization of Water/n-Propanol/Nonionic Surfactant/ Phenylacetylene Microemulsions.” Eur. Chem. Bull. 2014, 3, 81 – 84.
Monzer Fanun, Ahmad Shakarnah, Michael Schwarze, Reinhard Schomäcker, Zackaria Nairoukh, and Jochanan Blum. 2014. “Properties of Water/n-Propanol/Ionic Surfactant/ Phenylacetylene Micellar Systems.” Eur. Chem. Bull. 2014, 3, 426 – 429.
Zackaria Nairoukh, Monzer Fanun, Michael Schwarze, Reinhard Schomäcker, and Jochanan Blum. 2014. “Cyclotrimerization of Alkynes vs. Ketone Formation in Aqueous Microemulsion.” J. Mol. Catal. A Chem. 2014, 382, 93 – 98. Publisher's Version Abstract
In the course of our attempts to develop sustainable conditions for the catalytic organic reactions by replacement of the traditional but environmentally disfavored organic solvents by water, we studied the cyclotrimerizations of alkynes, in aqueous microemulsions. The catalyst for these reactions was the rhodium-trichloride encaged within silica sol–gel. In acidic aqueous media, alkynes can undergo addition of water to form their corresponding ketones. In order to eliminate completely the formation of ketones, relatively low reaction temperatures are required. At higher reaction temperatures, however, buffered microemulsion media is preferable. Cyclotrimerization of alkynes proved to be dependent on the reaction temperatures, the electronic nature of the substrates, the electronic nature of the surfactant and on the hydrophobicity of the sol–gel support. During the cyclotrimerization reaction, the rhodium complex was turned to Rh(0) nanoparticles characterized by TEM measurements. These investigations may be regarded as model studies for the conversion of alkynes into substituted benzenes in water.
I. Volovych, Y. Kasaka, M. Schwarze, Z. Nairoukh, J. Blum, M. Fanun, D. Avnir, and R. Schomäcker. 2014. “Investigation of Sol–Gel Supported Palladium Catalysts for Heck Coupling Reactions in o/w-Microemulsions.” J. Mol. Catal. A Chem. 2014, 393, 210 – 221. Publisher's Version Abstract
Sol–gel supported palladium catalysts are investigated for the Heck coupling reaction between styrene and iodo-/bromobenzene to trans-stilbenes in o/w-microemulsions as alternative reaction medium. High conversions and selectivities are obtained with these catalysts and they show better catalytic performance than their commercial analogs Pd@SiO2 or Pd/C. The influence of the catalyst structure on the activity is investigated in detail showing mass transport limitations that can be optimized by the palladium loading. The catalyst is recyclable >6 times with negligible palladium leaching into the solution. Because of the good recyclability under retention of activity and selectivity, the influence of transport limitations is suppressed and the total catalyst efficiency is increased to more than 2.
Zackaria Nairoukh and Jochanan Blum. 2014. “Regioselective Hydroaminomethylation of Vinylarenes by a Sol–Gel Immobilized Rhodium Catalyst.” J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 2397 – 2403. Publisher's Version Abstract
In the course of our studies toward the development of new heterogeneous conditions for better controlling regioselectivity in organic reactions, we investigated the application of sol–gel immobilized organometallic catalyst for regioselective hydroaminomethylation of vinylarenes with aniline or nitroarene derivatives in an aqueous microemulsion. By immobilization of 6 mol % [Rh(cod)Cl]2 within a hydrophobic silica sol–gel matrix we were able to perform efficient hydroaminomethylation under mild conditions and isolate 2-arylpropylamines with high regioselectivity. The regioselectivity of the reaction was found to be mainly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the catalyst support. It is also significantly affected by the electronic nature of the substrates, by the reaction temperature, and by syngas pressure. The heterogenized catalyst can be reused for several times.
I. Volovych, M. Schwarze, Z. Nairoukh, J. Blum, M. Fanun, and R. Schomäcker. 2014. “Sol-Gel Immobilized Catalyst Systems for Tandem Transformations with trans-Stilbene as an Intermediate.” Catal. Commun. 2014, 53, 1 – 4. Publisher's Version Abstract
Tandem catalytic systems containing one or two sol-gel immobilized catalysts were successfully applied in the synthesis of trans-stilbene oxide and 1,2-diphenylethane. The catalysts were prepared from palladium and/or manganese precursors in the presence of orthosilicates using a sol-gel method and could be reused several times successfully.